Bone dating methods

If there are fewer counts per minute, there is not much C-14 in the bone.If all bones have about the same amount of C-14 at the moment of their death, then the scientist can use the C-14 test as something like an hourglass.When cosmic rays enter the atmosphere, they cause "scatter radiation," which consists of little particles called neutrons.A moving neutron is a high-energy particle which performs an interesting task.C-14 enters the air by the action of cosmic radiation.Cosmic rays enter our Earth's atmosphere from outer space.A nitrogen atom hit by one of these neutrons changes into a C-14 atom and ejects a protein.If a moving neutron enters a nitrogen nucleus, a proton comes flying out, and the nitrogen atom is changed to an atom of C-14. The constancy of C-14 in our atmosphere depends on the cosmic rays coming into the atmosphere at the same rate.

The canopy would probably not stop all the cosmic rays themselves, but a good deal of the scatter radiation would be reduced. Thus, there would be a few neutrons and fewer C-14 atoms formed.

The beta rays given off when C-14 changes to C-12 can be counted with a counting machine such as the Geiger counter.

If many counts per minute (beta rays), are measured, high radioactivity and, therefore, much C-14 is present.

He would give his bone a "date" of 15,000 to 30,000 years because of the very low C-14.

He would do so because he believed all bones contained the present amount of C-14 when they died.

He would give this bone a false date because of a false assumption.

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