They were formed either by non-metropolitan districts taking on county-level functions, or by counties taking on district-level functions.In some cases, borders were altered or districts were combined during this reorganisation.In the case of Berkshire, there is no county council, as all of its former territory is now covered by six unitary authorities, unaffiliated with each other politically.Although there is no county council in Berkshire, these six unitary authorities comprise the ceremonial county of Berkshire.Most of the geographical area of England is within a two-tier non-metropolitan arrangement.In 27 of these areas the county councils provide the majority of services, including education and social services, and the 201 district councils have a more limited role.Unitary authorities can additionally have the status of borough or city, although this has no effect on their powers or functions.46 unitary authorities were created between 19 and nine more were created in 2009.
For the purposes of local government, the country is divided into counties, districts and parishes.
Following the change of government in 2010, these have been scheduled for abolition by 2012.
who are historically the Crown's representatives in those areas.
In some areas, counties and districts form a two-tier administrative structure, while in others they are combined under a unitary authority. The current system is the result of incremental reform which has its origins in legislation enacted in 19.
and since the 1999 Euro-elections have been used as the European Parliament constituencies in the United Kingdom and in England's European Parliament constituencies.
Politically, however, they are fully independent entities, unaffiliated with the council of their former county.